Effectiveness of over-the-counter tooth-whitening strips and toothbrushing for stain removal
ResumoThe present study compared the effectiveness of brushing and over-the-counter tooth-whitening strips on stain removal. Forty bovine teeth were used. Initial color readings were taken, and half of the samples were stained with grape juice for 7 days. The others teeth were used as the control. Both stained and control teeth were randomly separated into 2 groups (n=10) according to the treatment they underwent: whitening strips 2 times/day for 30 minutes for 7 days and mechanical brushing for 1 year using toothpaste. After treatments, new color readings were taken and results of color stability (ΔE) and changes in coordinates (ΔL, Δa, Δb) were statistically analyzed (2-way ANOVA, Bonferroni p<.05). Statistical differences were found in ΔE, and all coordinates (p<.05) between control and stained groups, with major changes in the stained group for both treatments. The control group showed greater alteration in Δb, being higher (p<.05) for bleached teeth, decreasing in yellowness. For stained teeth, Δa showed the greatest change, decreasing in redness, being higher (p<.05) for bleached teeth. Both treatments were effective for removing stains, and tooth whitening proved to be a more efficient method for removing stains from teeth that had not been subjected to the previous staining.
Mondelli RF, David E, Azevedo JF, Francisconi PA, Ishikiriama SK, Mondelli J. Wear and surface roughness of bovine enamel submitted to bleaching. Eur J Esthet Dent 2009; 4(4):396-403.
Walsh TF, Rawlinson A, Wildgoose D, Marlow I, Haywood J, Ward JM. Clinical evaluation of the stain removing ability of a whitening dentifrice and stain controlling system. J Dent 2005; 33(5):413-8.
Hattab FN, Qudeimat MA, al-Rimawi HS. Dental discoloration: an overview J Esthet Dent 1999; 11(6):291-310.
Joiner A. Review of the extrinsic stain removal and enamel/dentine abrasion by a calcium carbonate and perlite containing whitening toothpaste. Int Dent J 2006; 56(4):175-80.
Ritter AV, Leonard RH, St. Georges JA ST, Caplan DJ, Haywood VB. Safety and Stability of Nightguard Vital Bleaching: 9 to 12 Years Post‐treatment. J Esthet Restor Dent 2007; 14(5):275-85.
Attin T, Paqué F, Ajam F, Lennon AM. Review of the current status of tooth whitening with the walking bleach technique. Int Endodontic J 2003; 36(5):313-29.
Sulieman M. An Overview of Bleaching Techniques: 2. Night Guard Vital Bleaching and Non-Vital Bleaching. SADJ 2006; 61(18):352-4.
Cakir FY, Korkmaz Y, Firat E, Oztas SS, Gurgan S. Chemical analysis of enamel and dentin following the application of three different at-home bleaching systems. Oper Dent 2011; 36(5):529-36.
Cardoso PC, Reis A, Loguercio A, Vieira LC, Baratieri LN. Clinical effectiveness and tooth sensitivity associated with different bleaching times for a 10 percent carbamide peroxide gel. J Am Dent Assoc 2010; 141(10):1213-20.
Moghadam FV, Majidinia S, Chasteen J, Ghavamnasiri M. The degree of color change rebound effect and sensitivity of bleached teeth associated with at-home and power bleaching techniques: A randomized clinical trial. Eur J Dent 2013; 7(4):405-11.
Bharti R, Wadhwani K. Spectrophotometric evaluation of peroxide penetration into the pulp chamber from whitening strips and gel: An in vitro study. J Conserv Dent 2013; 16(2):131-4.
Auschill TM, Hellwig E, Schmidale S, Sculean A, Arweiler NB. Efficacy, side-effects and patients' acceptance of different bleaching techniques (OTC, in-office, at-home). Oper Dent 2005; 30(2):156-63.
Wiegand A, Kuhn M, Sener B, Roos M, Attin T. Abrasion of eroded dentin caused by toothpaste slurries of different abrasivity and toothbrushes of different filament diameter. J Dent 2009; 37(6):480-4.
Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage. Recommendations on uniform color spaces, color difference equations, psychometric color terms. Supplement 2 to CIE publication 15 (E2-31.1)1971 (TC-1.3)1978. Paris: Bureau Central de la CIE; 1978.
Pérez M del M, Ghinea R, Rivas MJ, Yebra A, Ionescu AM, Paravina RD, et al. Development of a customized whiteness index for dentistry based on CIELAB color space. Dent Mater 2016; 32(3):461-7.
Buchalla W, Attin T. External bleaching therapy with activation by heat, light or laser-A systematic review. Dent Mater 2007; 23(5):586-96.
Al-Qunaian TA, Matis BA, Cochran MA. In vivo kinetics of bleaching gel with three-percent hydrogen peroxide within the first hour. Oper Dent 2003; 28(3):236-41.
Goldstein GR, Lerner T. The effect of toothbrushing on a hybrid composite resin. J Prosthet Dent 1991; 66(4):498-500.
Wang L, Garcia FC, De Araújo PA, Franco EB, Mondelli RF. Wear Resistance of Packable Resin Composites after Simulated Toothbrushing Test. J Esthet Restor Dent 2006; 16(5):303-14.
Cho LR, Yi YJ, Heo SJ. Effect of tooth brushing and thermal cycling on a surface change of ceromers finished with different methods. J Oral Rehabil 2002; 29(9):816-22.
Paravina RD, Ghinea R, Herrera LJ, Bona AD, Igiel C, Linninger M, et al. Color difference thresholds in dentistry. J Esthet Restor Dent 2015; 27 Suppl 1:S1-9.
Ruyter IE, Nilner K, Moller B. Color stability of dental composite resin materials for crown and bridge veneers. Dent Mater 1987; 3(5):246-51.
Swift EJ, Heymann HO, Wilder AD, Barker ML, Gerlach RW. Effects of duration of whitening strip treatment on tooth color: A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Dent 2009; 37(1):51-6.
Garcia-Godoy F, Villalta P, Barker ML, Gerlach RW. Placebo-controlled, 6-week clinical trial on the safety and efficacy of a low-gel, 14% hydrogen-peroxide whitening strip. Compend Contin Educ Dent 2004; 25(8):21-6.
Gerlach RW, Barker ML. Professional vital bleaching using a thin and concentrated peroxide gel on whitening strips: An integrated clinical. J Contemp Dent Pract 2004; 5(1):1-17.
Lampros D, Lykakes-Lampros K. Contribution to the research of permeability of the hard tissues of teeth. Stomatol Chron (Athenai) 1967; 10(4):217-25.
Jiang T, Guo YR, Feng XW, Sa Y, Yang X, Wang M, et al. Hydrogen Peroxide Might Bleach Natural Dentin by Oxidizing Phosphoprotein. J Dent Res 2018; 97(12):1339-45.
Tam L. The safety of home bleaching techniques. J Can Dent Assoc 1999; 65(8):453-5.
Kwon SR, Kurti SR, Oyoyo U, Li Y. Effect of various tooth whitening modalities on microhardness, surface roughness and surface morphology of the enamel. Odontology 2015; 103(3):274-9.
Horn BA, Bittencourt BF, Gomes OM, Farhat PA. Clinical evaluation of the whitening effect of over-the-counter dentifrices on vital teeth. Braz Dent J 2014; 25(3):203-6.
Copyright (c) 2019 Revista da Faculdade de Odontologia - UPF
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Este periódico bem como seus artigos estão licenciados com a licença Creative Commons Atribuição-NãoComercial-SemDerivações 4.0 Internacional.